The Mosaic Law was a bilateral pact made specifically for Israel alone to regulate its life in the Promised Land. From the Abrahamic Covenant (Gen 12), we see that Israel was a chosen nation, an instrument of God to become a channel of blessing for all nations. Yahweh was his theocratic king, who was to rule and direct the nation in its destiny so that it would not be polluted or contaminated by other nations and thus fulfill its purpose. To this end, the Mosaic Law was introduced to guide Israel as a nation in all areas of its life – morally, socially, politically, economically and religiously. By virtue of the covenant with Moses, God is making great strides in fulfilling the promises He made to Abraham (Genesis 12:1-3). A large number of families were formed as a nation during the Exodus from Egypt and brought to Canaan, ushering in the first great fulfillment of God`s promise to the Patriarch. The Lord is present among Israel in the tabernacle as He keeps His Word to bless Israel. All the nations of the earth begin to find blessings when the law is written and later proclaimed to the nations (Jonah 3).  “Deut also adds to the Horeb covenant another, which was made in the land of Moab before entering the country, an alliance that appears to be a renewal of the ancient and similar character” (Gordon J.
McConville, “n)1.J.,” New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis (NIDOTTE), ed. Willem A. VanGemeren [Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1997] 1:750). The Confederation of Deuteronomy sometimes receives the title of Palestinian League. Certains théologiens incluent l’Alliance deutéronomique dans l’Alliance de Moïse au lieu de faire la distinction entre les deux. Une discussion sur ce problème ne fera pas partie de cette étude. Cf. Renald E. Duschen, il y a vraiment une différence!: A Comparison of Covenant and Dispensational Theology (Bellmawr, N.J.: The Friends of Israel Gospel Ministry, Inc., 1990) 77-83; Charles Caldwell Ryrie, The Basis of the Premillennial Faith (Neptune, N.J.: Loizeaux Brothers, 1953) 58-59; Otto Eissfeldt, The Old Testament: An Introduction, traduit par Peter R. Ackroyd (New York: Harper & Row, 1965) 214-17, 226, 230; S. R. Driver, An Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament (New York: The Meridian Library, 1956) 71; M.
Weinfeld, « n)1.J., , » TDOT, éd. G. Johannes Botterweck et Helmer Ringgren, traduit par John T. Willis (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1975) 2:256, 268-69; Moshe Weinfeld, Deutéronome et l’école du Deutéronome (Oxford: Clarendon, 1972) 59-116; Delbert R. Hillers, Covenant: The History of a Biblical Idea (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1969) 58-64, 134-42. The law of the Old Covenant testified to the perfect holiness that God needs, and it also taught Israel to seek a Savior. It was not through the observance of the law that the ancient Israelites were commanded to seek salvation. As with us, their actions of good works, as described in the scriptures, should be the way they thanked God for saving them. We must do good works, and the law of the old covenant can guide us in the manner of works that please our Lord.
In an article comparing alliances and treaty forms, Mendenhall focuses on Hittite sovereign treaties. These treaties, concluded between an emperor (Suzerain) and a lower king (vassal), were defined by several important elements. The treaties were based on the help or happiness of the past that Suzerain had previously given to the vassal and on the obligations that the vassal therefore had towards the sovereign. This basis for a contractual relationship is similar to the basis of the Covenant of Moses and the Decalogue, Mendenhall said. God had delivered the Israelites from Egypt in the Exodus, and so they are obliged to obey the commandments of the Decalogue. As a vassal, God has no other obligations to the Israelites, but it is implied that God will continue to protect them because of the covenant.  By now making the covenant with Israel, what we call the covenant of Moses, the terms of the relationship are again established. This time the terms are different, with Abraham the terms were quite graceful and one-sided, Abraham just had to believe. Now God says, after I have saved you, I want you to live as my people. I want you to live in such a way that people can see that you are My people and that you will bring glory to My Name.
This is how he summarizes the 10 commandments. These are the conditions of Confederation. And then, as the rest of the book of Exodus continues, these 10 summary terms are actually developed in detail. And at the end of the book of Exodus, and we see it in the book of Deuteronomy, when they are finally about to go to the promised land, it was said that people must proclaim the promises and curses of the covenant. The covenant should not be the means of salvation. The participants in the covenant at Sinai were already worshippers of Yahweh. The works specified in the covenant provisions were never intended to put someone in a saving relationship with God. [ii] The provisions were intended to improve the worship and ministry of the believer. [iii] Obedience to the laws of Moses would bring blessings to God`s people, but not salvation from sin (cf. Rom 3:20). In fact, worship at Sinai was motivated by a redemption that had already been experienced.
“The characteristic feature of the Covenant with Moses is its establishment of the laws of God that govern the life of Israel within the framework of a theology of the election of Israel by grace.” [iv] The theological context of the Covenant with Moses is the election of Israel by grace and the redeeming context of God`s deliverance of Israel from Egypt. The content of the alliance follows the pattern of the old days, when a dominant power entered into a treaty with a lesser or moderate power (i.e., a sovereign treaty). The covenant was the most conditional of all covenants, and like all covenants, it promised blessings for obedience and curses for disobedience. The covenant addressed Israel and Israel alone, with its divinely authoritative rules that set standards of justice. No one can rightly separate the moral, civil and ceremonial parts of the law, as many have tried; The law is a unity. .